Nancy Bazilchukbased on an article by Anne Lise Stranden The Karolinska Institutet says they have no knowledge of a person claiming to be a researcher who is affiliated with them. Now a study this individual has authored about cervical cancer vaccines has been withdrawn.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Recent evidences identify Human Papillomavirus HPV sperm infection as a possible cause of male and couple infertility.
It acts through different mechanisms at various steps of human conception and early gestational development. We performed a systematic review to assess the role of HPV semen infection on male and couple infertility.
Analysis of available and eligible data does not permit us to fund clear evidences about clinical impact of HPV infection on fertility, although sperm parameters impairment is the most widely recognized effect.
Regarding biomolecular implications, the available data are often conflicting. More studies are required to define the role of HPV sperm infection in clinical practice. The great majority of evidences are obtained by in vitro studies and this fact represents a limitation for the clinical management of HPVDNA sperm infection.
Understanding the biological significance of HPV-DNA semen infection could permit us to explain most of the idiopathic male and couple infertility, leading to a better management of infertile men and a better timing for sperm banking storage before ART cycles.
Introduction Human Papillomavirus HPV infection is one of the main sexually transmitted diseases worldwide [ 1 ]. The most important clinical consequence of HPV infection is cervical cancer which remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in young and older women [ 2 — 5 ].
HPV infection is also related to anogenital warts and different neoplasia, such as vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, oral cavity, head, and neck cancers [ 146 ]. Great progresses have been reached in understanding the pathologic mechanisms of HPV infection.
Nevertheless few data are available on male infection [ 113 — 15 ]. Recent findings underlined the role of HPV semen infection in male and couple infertility, focusing mainly on its high prevalence among 18—40 years old men [ 1617 ].
Many Authors hypothesized that HPV can modify spermatic parameters causing sperm motility reduction, seminal pH alterations, and spermatozoa DNA fragmentation [ 1820 — 22 ]. Although in vitro studies demonstrated that spermatozoa can carry HPV-DNA and transfer it to oocytes, it is still not clear if in vivo the HPV-infected sperm is able to fertilize oocyte and to transfer the viral genome [ 1723 — 25 ].
These uncertainties extend to the following steps of conception because it is not clear if the infected oocytes are able to generate normal embryo and if the infection itself could interfere with implantation and subsequent pregnancy development [ 17 ].
The aim of this review is to investigate the implications of HPV sperm infection on male and couple infertility, analyzing the clinical impact on early pregnancy development and pregnancy loss, the paradigmatic spermatic alterations, the sperm immunological modifications, and the spermatozoa HPV-related molecular changes.
Finally we analysed the effect of HPV-infected sperm on fertilized oocyte, blastocyst implantation, and pregnancy development. We will also discuss the available diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, in terms of feasibility and clinical efficacy trying to make some considerations on sperm banking before ART cycles.
Data Sources A Literature analysis was performed on the electronic databases Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane Library, considering papers published in the time interval from to We looked for randomized trials, observational and retrospective studies, original works, and review articles having topics as the relation between male HPV sperm infection, seminal modifications, effects on fertilized oocytes, association to apoptosis, early miscarriages, and implications on male and couple reproductive outcomes.
Methods We evaluated the clinical significance of genital HPV-DNA presence in male, female, and couple in relation to placental infection both at term and preterm and spontaneous miscarriage Table 1.
Data about studies analyzing the clinical impact of HPV infection on fertility outcomes. The seminal parameters were defined according to WHO laboratory manual for examination and processing of human semen [ 5 ] and Hamilton Thorn motility analyser [ 42 ]. We analysed both clinical and experimental works which focused on the ability of human sperm to vehicle HPV-DNA infection into oocytes and subsequent implications Table 2.
The sperm washing techniques reported in the studies were two-layer isolate colloid wash, test-yolk buffer procedures, swim-up procedure, modified swim up with enzymatic treatment Heparinase-IIIand discontinuous Ficoll gradients.
Finally the hamster egg-human sperm penetration test HEPT has been used in some works in order to assess the ability of HPV-infected sperm to fertilize and to transfer viral genome into the oocytes. Results According to our selection criteria, only 23 works had eligible results for the aim of the review.
The Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 18/45 Genotype (GT) assay (AHPV-GT) is a qualitative E6/ E7 oncogene messenger RNA test that detects HPV 16 and a pool of HPV 18 and The CLEAR (Clinical Evaluation of APTIMA mRNA) study was the pivotal, prospective, multicenter US clinical study to validate the Aptima HPV (AHPV) assays. Girl left paralysed in 3 limbs and in hospital after having HPV vaccine, parents claim Girl, 16, is left paralysed in 3 limbs and in hospital on a drip after having the HPV vaccine, her parents claim. In the United States, most men over the age of 50 years have had a prostate-specific–antigen (PSA) test, 1 despite the absence of evidence from large, randomized trials of a net benefit.
Semiquantitative analysis showed that the HPV detection was six-fold higher in the spontaneous abortions compared to elective ones [ 26 ]. In Skoczynski et al. After ARTs, miscarriage rate had considerably higher results in couples where a single or both partners were HPV carriers compared to noninfected couples.
The comparison between the two groups resulted in Moreover, all the considered studies were retrospective or cross-sectional since the only perspective one was performed by Perino et al.APPENDIX 9: Betrayal of Public Trust & Institutional Corruption: Vaccine Safety Ratings & Vaccine Science Falsified.
Nov 17, · "Most of the focus has been on HPV types 16 and 18, because they are the most prevalent carcinogenic HPV types and are targeted by the new HPV vaccines," comments Attila Lorincz, PhD, one of the 3/5(2).
Principal publications. To obtain copies of manuscripts regarding HPV and clinical research, choose from the links below: Evaluation of HPV and HPV Genotyping for the Triage of High-risk HPV Positive Cytology Negative Women.
Safety Tolerability and Immunogenicity of a Nine-valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine in HIV and Transplant Patients. This is a single-center, open-label study on safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of Gardasil9 in 18 to 45 year-old HIV patients, in 18 to 55 year-old solid-organ transplant (SOT) patients.
Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+OPC) is a subtype of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), associated with the human papillomavirus type 16 virus (HPV16).
Historically, cancer of the throat oropharynx (throat) was associated with the use of alcohol and tobacco, but the majority of cases are now associated with the HPV virus. Zinc is an essential mineral involved in regulating many enzymes. It is an antioxidant and immune-boosting supplement.
Zinc is most commonly supplemented to reduce the frequency of illness and to support optimal levels of testosterone.